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   India & the Kyoto Protocol



     The atmosphere around the earth is highly complex system, and the effects of changes in any single property tend to be transmitted to many other properties. The sun’s energy represents the prime source of the earth’s climate system. Thus, the heating and cooling of the air cause adjustments in relative humidity and buoyancy; they may cause condensation and evaporation, cloud formation and the development of storms. The interactions of atmospheric systems are very complex and are characterized generally in terms of weather and climate.
     Weather refers to the conditions at one particular time and place, and can change from hour to hour, day to day, and season to season. It is a description of physical condition in the atmosphere such as: humidity, temperature, pressure, wind and precipitation. There are a variety of weather events that occur every year and these are floods, droughts, tornadoes, hurricanes and heat waves. Climate, on the other hand, refers to the long-term average pattern of weather in a place. For example, we might say that the climate of a place is warm, moist and sunny, although the weather on a particular day could be quite different than that. Thus, Climate is commonly defined as the average weather for a specific location, region or the entire globe over an extended period of time (usually three decades).
     The difference between weather and climate is the measure of time. Weather is what the conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time and climate is the average weather over a very long period of time. Weather means conditions such as air temperature, rain, snow, wind, or other atmospheric phenomena, on a particular day. Climate describes what kind of weather a particular location is likely to have either seasonally or all the time; for example, A specific location has a dry climate, so we expect that it will rarely rain there, because a low amount of rain is the average condition there measured long enough to know what to expect. Weather speaks to the atmospheric conditions now or in the past or future. Climate speaks to the variations of weather over time. Weather changes from season to season, but the "sum" of the weather over time is climate. Weather changes, but climate isn't so changeable.
     Climate change refers to a long-term shift in climate measured as a change in some or all of the features associated with weather, such as temperature, wind, precipitation. This can involve both changes in average conditions (e.g. mean daily temperature) and in the variability of the weather. For the term climate change to properly apply, the shift in conditions should continue over an extended period of time. Climate change can result from either natural or anthropogenic (human-influenced) causes. It should be noted that in a political context, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change uses the term climate change to refer specifically to human-induced climate change. Long-term data are needed to determine changes in climate, and such data indicate that Earth's climate has been changing or not.


     The term climate change is often used interchangeably with the term global warming, but climate change is preferred use to global warming because it helps convey that there are other changes in addition to rising temperatures. Climate change refers to any significant change in measures of climate such as temperature, precipitation, or wind lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). Climate change may result from:natural factors, such as changes in the sun's intensity or slow changes in the Earth's orbit around the sun;natural processes within the climate system (e.g. changes in ocean circulation);human activities that change the atmosphere's composition (e.g. through burning fossil fuels) and the land surface (e.g. deforestation, reforestation, urbanization, desertification, etc.)

Difference between Global Warming and Climate Change

Global warming refers to the increase of the Earth's average surface temperature, due to a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. An overall warming of the planet, based on average temperature over the entire surface.Climate change is a broader term that refers to long-term changes in climate, including changes in regional climate characteristics, such as temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind, and severe weather events for a given area. Climate change can involve cooling or warming.
When speaking of climate change and global warming there are some significant distinctions and also a number of overlaps that are commonly accepted within the scientific community. In its simplest explanation climate change is a long-term change in the average climate of the planet or a region of the planet.
    The term "global warming" refers to a sustained increase in global average surface temperature and so, is just one aspect of climate change.
Global warming is a phenomenon that is a type of climate change. Global warming, as it is defined, can cause climate change. It is also notable that climate change can magnify the process and impact of global warming.


     We see climate changing rapidly now as the general warming of the earth has been characterized as "global climate change" meaning the general weather everywhere isn't going to "be like it used to" in the near future. Climate may change in a single region or across the whole planet. There are various causes of change which can be brought about by a variety of factors. These include natural external factors, such as changes in solar emission or slow changes in the earth's orbit; or natural internal processes of the climate or earth system such as volcanic activity; or, as has occurred recently, human-induced (anthropogenic) factors.
     To separate out the difference between human-induced and natural factors, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) uses the term 'climate change' to refer to changes that can be attributed to human activity that has changed the composition of the atmosphere that result in climate change. The UNFCCC uses the term 'climate variability' to refer to natural alterations in the earth's climate.
     In the past the conversion of most of the temperate forest zones into agricultural land changed the ecology and the local climate. After the Industrial Revolution, industrialization, urbanization and population growth have caused the spread of enormous pollutants effecting the deliberate modification of the climate.
     Combustion of a great amount of fossil fuels has caused an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases resulting in global warming and climate change. This has altered the wind, cloud and precipitation pattern. The land use has also an effect on the climate such as deforestation, agricultural work and urbanization.


     Most climatologists consider that the global warming that we are now experiencing is mainly the result of human actions changing the composition of the atmosphere. However, global warming and cooling have occurred naturally throughout the history of the earth, as a result of natural climate variability. Such changes in the past were usually much slower than the rate of warming that has occurred in the last few decades.
     The increase in global temperatures measured over recent decades, if it continues, has the potential to seriously disrupt many of the environmental, economic and urban structures upon which human society depends. Whilst it is possible that some of this warming may have a natural cause, but there is an evidence that human activity is responsible for most of the measured warming.
     An increase in global temperatures can cause changes in the climate includes sea level rise, increases in extreme weather events in terms of intensity and frequency(cyclones, heat waves, droughts, floods, etc); changes in rainfall patterns; decreases in ice mass of glaciers; increase in incidence of vector-borne diseases(malaria, dengue, etc) ; increased threat to bio-diversity; changes in ocean circulation; and drying of the land.This may also include many different changes in climate as well as weather.
     When climate change is gradual, species may have time to adopt or migrate to more suitable locations. Where climate change is relatively abrupt, many organisms are unable to respond before conditions exceed their tolerance limits, whole community may be destroyed and if the climate change is widespread, many species may become extinct.

What will happen if global warming continues?

     There are already some changes happening because of global warming. Sea level is rising and some animals are already moving to new homes. It’s already too late to stop global warming completely. If the warming gets worse, as scientists expect, there may be some kinds of plants and animals that become extinct (disappear completely) because they can’t move to new homes. There may be more storms and floods. Sea level may rise so much that people have to move away from the coasts. Some areas may become too dry for farming.
     According to the Environment Ministry’s Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA) Report 2010, climate change impacts will lead to a reduction in the winter wheat, or rabbi, crop production, lower yields from dairy cattle, a decline in fish harvests and quality changes in fruits, vegetables and even basmati rice.
     UP is one of the six severely affected states listed by the World Bank in its study on malnutrition in India. The other states where every second child is underweight - one of the indicators of malnutrition - include Rajasthan, Orissa, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. The World Bank report made headlines when it came out with the statement that India has the world’s highest prevalence of underweight children, nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa. Four states – UP, Rajasthan, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh – account for more than 43 per cent of all underweight children in India.


The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide(CO2) and methane(CH4) have increased by 31% and 149% respectively above pre-industrial levels(1750 AD).
The principal sectors contributing to increase in concentration of green house gases include energy, industry, agriculture and forestry.
About three-quarters of man-made emissions are due to fossil fuel burning(coal and oil).
Global average air temperature near the Earth’s surface has risen by 0.74±0.180C during the past century.
The average global sea level rose at an average rate of 1.8 mm per year between 1961 to 2003 and by 3.1 mm per year between 1993 to 2003.
Maximum temperature is projected to increase by 2-40C by the 2050s.
Climate models referenced by the IPCC project that global surface temperatures are likely to increase by 1.1 to 60C by the end of this century.


     In the 1980s & early 1990s, the issue of global warming and climate change came to the forefront of international politics and United Nation’s organizations. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nation’s Organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess “the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change.” IPCC is a scientific body. It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It provides the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters. Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis. The IPCC Secretariat coordinates all its work and liaises with Governments. It is supported by WMO and UNEP and hosted at WMO headquarter in Geneva. It is open to all member countries of the United Nations (UN) and WMO. Currently 194 countries including India are member of the IPCC.
     For its first task, the IPCC prepared, based on available scientific information, a report on all aspects relevant to climate change and its impacts to formulate realistic response strategies. The first assessment report of the IPCC, which served as the basis for negotiation with member countries, is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
     The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992. The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system– commonly believed to be around 2°C above the pre-industrial global average temperature. It was deemed necessary to bring together a number of countries in order to work collectively to try and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and stabilize world temperatures. The treaty itself is legally non-binding as it does not contain any mandatory emission levels for countries; however it acts as an important framework to strive to protect this shared resource: our climate. The 1992 Convention was only a general agreement in principle aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, since the Convention did not provide any of the important specifics for action, such as precise emission reduction targets, a timetable by which nations were to meet their targets, or a penalty system to punish violators.
     Nations agreed, moreover, that developed countries (countries with modern, fully developed economies) were to take a leadership role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Implicit in this understanding was the recognition that developed nations had been the primary greenhouse gas emitters over the last century, and that emission stabilization would be more problematic for non-developed or developing countries. (It was believed emission stabilization could come at the cost of economic development for non-developed and developing countries, something they could not easily afford.)
     These issues were to be addressed at subsequent “Conferences of the Parties” (or COP). The parties of the Convention meet every year at the COP and the first COP took place in Berlin in 1995 and provided an opportunity to express concerns over the shortcomings of some countries’ abilities to meet commitments under the Convention. Since then, it has become a yearly occasion for member country to meet and discuss ways of improving the state of our climate. The COP of the UNFCCC also serves as the meeting of the Parties (MOP) for the Protocol. This structure has been established to facilitate the management of the intergovernmental process. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol have been adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called the “Marrakesh Accords. COP-14, was held in Poznan, Poland in December 2008. COP 15 was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2009. The overall goal for the COP 15 was to establish an ambitious global climate agreement for the period from 2012 onward when the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol expires. The latest COP took place in Durban, South Africa in December 2011.
     Note: The UNFCCC was opened for signature on May 9, 1992 after an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee produced the text of the Framework Convention as a report following its meeting in New York. It entered into force in March, 1994. Countries who sign up to the UNFCCC are known and as ‘Parties’, there are currently 194 signed up Parties. Since the UNFCCC entered into force, the parties have been meeting annually in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change.
     Under the Convention, governments are expected to gather and share information on greenhouse gas emissions, national policies and best practices, as well as launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and cooperating in adapting to the impacts of climate change.


܀ Recognizes that Climate Change is a problem, it not being easy for the nations of the world to agree on a common course of action, especially one that tackles a problem whose consequences are uncertain and which will be more important for our future generation than for the present.
܀ Sets an “ultimate objective” of stabilizing “greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human-induced) interference with the climate system.” The objective does not specify what these concentrations should be, only that they be at a level that is not dangerous. This acknowledges that there is currently no scientific certainty about what a dangerous level would be.
܀ Directs that “such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner”.
܀ establishes a framework and a process for agreeing to specific actions;
܀ encourages scientific research on climate change;
܀ Recognizes that poorer nations have a right to economic development. It notes that the share of global emissions of greenhouse gases originating in developing countries will grow as these countries expand their industries to improve social and economic conditions for their citizens;
܀ acknowledges the vulnerability of poorer countries to the effects of climate change and supports the concept of "sustainable development";
܀ calls for developing and sharing environmentally sound technologies and know-how and emphasizes the need to educate people about climate change;

      In 1997, a number of nations approved an addition to the Treaty, namely the Kyoto Protocol which offers more legally binding measures for member countries.

History of the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change

     The Kyoto Protocol involved a process of inter-governmental negotiations over a 13-year period. The following provides an historical overview of these negotiations, from the original meeting of nations in 1992, to the Protocol’s coming into force in 2005.
     The Kyoto Protocol is an international system of governance, implemented under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for the purpose of regulating levels of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. The Protocol was first principally adopted in United Nations-sponsored meeting held in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan (hence, the name “Kyoto Protocol”); by January 2004, several countries had ratified the Kyoto Protocol, including Japan, Canada, New Zealand, and most European signatories. In November 2004, Russian had also ratified the Protocol and officially came into force in 2005, after being formally ratified by the required number of nations. As a system of governance, the Protocol is underwritten by national governments and is operated under the aegis of the United Nations. Participating nations have agreed to meet certain greenhouse gas emissions targets, as well as agreed to submit reports for external review by United Nations-based bodies regarding enforcement of these commitments.
     The Kyoto Protocol was adopted by a number of countries, at present, 194 countries, including the United States, Germany and China, make up the member states.
     It is important to note that nations do not have the same emission reduction targets under the Protocol. Instead, different groups of nations have different targets. Canada’s target, for example, is to bring greenhouse gas emissions to six percent lower than what its emissions were in the year 1990. Most European countries, by contrast, are obliged to reduce their emissions to eight percent below their 1990 levels. The Protocol requires each participating nation to achieve its particular emissions targets by the period 2008-2012.The understanding was that nations should not sacrifice necessary economic development in order to meet their Kyoto obligations.
     Under the Protocol, “ratifying nations” are divided into basic two categories: developed nations and developing nations and this distinction is based on economics. Developed Nations are referred to under the Protocol as “Annex 1” countries, such as Canada, Japan, Russia, and most European nations. Developing Nations are referred to as “Non-Annex 1” countries to represent economies considered to be underdeveloped or in the process of developing, such as China, India, and the nations of Africa and South America.
     Only Annex 1 nations have binding greenhouse gas emission targets, while Non-Annex 1 countries are currently exempt. This means that greenhouse gas emitters, such as China and India, are not obliged to limit their emissions and may, in fact, increase their production of greenhouse gases without penalty. Non-Annex 1 countries, however, do have an important role to play in the Protocol’s flexibility mechanisms (see below); developed nations (Annex 1 countries) receive emission credits for funding greenhouse gas reduction projects in developing nations (Non-annex 1 countries). Moreover, special funds, such as the Least Developed Countries Fund, have been committed under the Protocol to aid developing countries in dealing with greenhouse gas emissions and the potential impact of global warming.
     The Protocol’s distinction between developed and developing nations is based on recognition that developed nations had been the leading contributors to increasing greenhouse gas levels over the last century and, as such, should take the lead in stabilizing the process of global warming. As such, negotiating parties further agreed that developing nations should not be required to sacrifice economic development in order to reduce or stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions – accounting for their exemption from emission targets.

Note:Ratification means that these nations have formally adopted the Protocol in their domestic political institutions and are formally committed to meeting their specific greenhouse gas emission targets and are open to external review and enforcement by United Nations-based bodies.

Objectives of the Protocol

The objective of the Protocol is the stabilization of levels of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Global warming has become a global concern; the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a United Nations agency, has predicted the earth’s average temperature will increase between the years 1990 and 2100, with potentially significant environmental and social consequences. Moreover, the IPCC has linked the global warming phenomenon to human actions, and specifically, to increased levels of greenhouse gas emissions by humans through such activities as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial and agricultural production. The Protocol is meant to serve as a framework by which participating countries work cooperatively to stabilize concentrations of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere.
     The major feature of the Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European Community (Parties to the Protocol) to reducing six major greenhouse gas(GHG) emission- carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs), and per fluorocarbons (PFCs). The Parties to the Protocol have agreed to lower overall emissions by 5.2% calculated as an average over the five-year period of 2008-12. The Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations, who are principally responsible for the current high levels of emissions in the atmosphere, under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.” National targets for developed countries range from 8% reductions for the European Union (for the 15 countries that were EU members in 1997) to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland compared to 1990 levels. Developing countries, including India and China, do not have to commit to specific targets. However, they have to report their emissions levels and have to develop national climate change mitigation programs.
     Under the Kyoto Protocol, developed countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. The Parties to the Protocol are also allowed to use emissions trading to meet their obligations. The emission trading is a cap-and-trade system, which allow Parties that can easily meet their targets to sell credits to those that cannot. As such protocol provides mechanism also to meet their obligations and which is another important element of the Kyoto Protocol and known as flexibility mechanisms. These enable participating nations to achieve their emission targets by means other than simply reducing their own national emissions of greenhouse gases.

 Kyoto Mechanisms
     There are three market-based mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol in order to assist countries who ratified the Protocol to meet their targets of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Those mechanisms are Emissions Trading, Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

܀ Emissions Trading: This mechanism allows Annex 1 nations to purchase emission ‘credits’ from other Annex 1 countries. Some countries will be below the emission targets assigned to them under the Protocol and, as such, will have spare emission credits. Under the emissions trading system, other nations may purchase these spare credits and use them towards their own emission targets.
܀ Joint Implementation (JI): JI is a project-based activity in which one country can receive emission reduction credits if it funds a project in another country where the emissions are actually reduced. It offers a flexible and cost-efficient means to fulfill parties’ obligation to Kyoto agreement, while the host party can benefit from foreign investment and technology transfer.
܀ Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): This mechanism allows developed (or Annex 1) nations to receive emission credits towards their own emission targets by participating in certain projects in developing (or Non-Annex 1) countries. These Clean Development projects must be approved by members of the Protocol and must contribute to sustainable development and greenhouse gas emission reductions in the host developing country.

These mechanisms are meant to provide individual countries some flexibility in meeting their particular emission targets, while still ensuring an overall reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Under the Clean Development Mechanism, for example, the Annex 1 nation receives emission credits for reducing greenhouse gas emission in a developing nation. Hence, while emissions in the Annex 1 nation have in actuality remained the same, overall global emissions have been reduced.
     In addition to these flexibility mechanisms, the Protocol also provides for a compliance regime consisting of a Compliance Committee that is made up of two branches: a Facilitation Branch and an Enforcement Branch. The mandate of the Facilitation Branch is to provide advice to, and assist, participating nations in meeting their Protocol commitments. The Enforcement Branch, by contrast, has the power to assess whether or not nations have met their emission commitments, and to determine possible consequences for non-compliance. Under the Protocol, nations that fail to meet their emission targets are required to make up the shortfall, plus an additional 30 percent goal, over the next emissions target period. Moreover, the Enforcement Branch may also assess a financial penalty to violating nations by suspending their eligibility to sell emission credits under the Protocol’s emission trading system.

India & the Kyoto Protocol

     The Government of India had decided to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 after 77 countries had ratified the Protocol. India was not required to reduce emission of Green House Gases under the Protocol under which basically the developed countries were required to reduce emissions of GHG by an average of 5.2 per cent below 1990 level by 2012. Being in Developing & Non-annex countries, India ratified the convention to seek benefit from transfer of technology and additional foreign investments when the Kyoto Protocol comes into force. This was expected to be followed by new investments in renewable energy, energy generation and efficiency promotion and afforestation projects. India is fully committed to the Kyoto Protocol and has now recently been very active in the talks for further emission reduction commitments of Annex-I Parties in the Second Commitment Period (Post 2012). The talks are undergoing since 2004, from COP-10, Argentina, when for the first time, discussions on the post-Kyoto mechanism, on how to allocate emission reduction obligation following 2012 started. India, along with South Africa and 35 other like minded countries has submitted a proposal calling for Annex-I Parties to agree to at least 40% emission reduction commitment by 2020 as compared to their 1990 levels. India has been one of the major beneficiaries of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol and would like that this mechanism to continue.


The Indian Government has taken steps at the national level to address the above through the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), environmental laws and energy policies.
      On June 30 2008, the Prime Minister released the NAPCC, intended to provide a concrete road map detailing how India plans to move forward in combating climate change. The NAPCC sets out eight core 'National Missions' with the focus on 'promoting understanding of climate change, adaptation and mitigation, energy efficiency and natural resource conservation'.

National Missions in Brief

1. National Solar Mission: The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options. The plan includes: Specific goals for increasing use of solar thermal technologies in urban areas, industry, and commercial establishments; A goal of increasing production of photovoltaic’s to 1000 MW/year; and A goal of deploying at least 1000 MW of solar thermal power generation. Other objectives include the establishment of a solar research center, increased international collaboration on technology development, strengthening of domestic manufacturing capacity, and increased government funding and international support.
2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency: Current initiatives are expected to yield savings of 10,000 MW by 2012. Building on the Energy Conservation Act 2001, the plan recommends:
     Mandating specific energy consumption decreases in large energy-consuming industries, with a system for companies to trade energy-saving certificates, financing for public-private partnerships to reduce energy consumption through demand-side management programs in the municipal, buildings, and agricultural sectors, and energy incentives, including reduced taxes on energy-efficient appliances.
3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, the plan calls for:
Extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code;
A greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste;
Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles; and
Incentives for the use of public transportation.
4. National Water Mission: With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures to deal with water scarcity as a result of climate change.
5. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of India’s water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming. This particular mission sets the goal to prevent melting of the Himalayan glaciers.
6. National Mission for a “Green India”: Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of India’s territory.
7. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.
8. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration. It also encourage private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.

The NAPCC also describes other initiatives/programs that are as follows :

1. Power generation: The government is mandating the retirement of inefficient coal-fired power plants and supporting the research and development of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle IGCC and supercritical technologies.
2. Renewable energy: Under the Electricity Act 2003 and the National Tariff Policy 2006, the central and the state electricity regulatory commissions must purchase a certain percentage of grid-based power from renewable sources.
3. Energy efficiency: Under the Energy Conservation Act 2001, large energy-consuming industries are required to undertake energy audits and an energy-labeling program for appliances has been introduced.
4. Proposals for health sector: The proposed program comprises two main components, namely provision of enhanced public health care services and assessment of increased burden of diseases due to climate change.


     The action plans are important since they would complement the central government's National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) and showcase the country's road map on the issues. The action plans are supposed to focus on measures that state governments will take in reducing the carbon footprint and greenhouse gas emissions, besides adopting a low carbon climate resilient development path on the basis of agro-climatic zones and industrial sectors. The state governments have to prepare state’s level action plan to face climate change and have to submit to the MoEF within timeframe.

     State-Level Action Programs to face Climate Change are instruments that support planning and development of public policy at the state level on climate change; include the preparation of state-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and emission scenarios; the review of information on climate variability and climate change at state and local levels; the assessment of vulnerability and impacts in different regions/sectors of the states, to detect and determine mitigation measures for GHG emis¬sions and adaptation, as well as the analysis of the legal and institutional framework and socioeco¬nomic factors of relevance for policymaking. the impacts of climate change affecting economic activities, biodiversity, ecosystems, human settlements and life styles.
Action by Some States on the Issues

     On August 20, 2009, the government of Maharashtra approved the state's climate change action plan. In 2008, the state of Himachal Pradesh introduced a voluntary 'green tax' on vehicle-users to create a fund for combating climate change - one of the first of its kind among Indian states. Other states are also proactively addressing climate change, adopting climate policies and promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency. The Chief Minister of the coastal state of Gujarat, for example, announced in February 2009, the establishment of a special department(Dedicated Climate Change Department) to prepare a comprehensive policy on issues related to climate change and global warming.
     State like-Manipur, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura, Assam, West Bengal etc have submitted drafts of the state-level strategy and action plan on climate change (SAPCC), the deadline for which was March 31,2011.


Bihar has just started the process of preparing the action plan. The state constituted a steering committee to prepare the action plan.
     The chairman of International Panel for Climate Change(IPCC) and Director-General of The Energy and Resources Institute (Teri), Mr. Rajendra Kumar Pachauri inaugurated the two days workshop on Bihar State Action Plan on Climate Change (BSAPCC) held in Patna on ------ and organized by the state environment and forests department. During the inaugural session of workshop Deputy chief minister Hon’ble Deputy C.M., Sri Sushil Kumar Modi announced to finalize the Bihar State Action Plan on Climate Change (BSAPCC) by March 31, 2012. Further, the chief guest of the workshop Mr.Pachauri has agreed to work for the Development of Bihar and suggested to the Deputy C.M. to constitute a State Knowledge Management Centre on Climate Change. It has already been done by the MP government. He added, "Bihar should also introduce a green building code like Tamil Nadu, which provides tax rebate to buildings following the code.”The Deputy Chief Minister requested him to be the advisory of Bihar State Action Plan on Climate Change (BSAPCC) and he gladly accepted the proposal.


•  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

•  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


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